Plant profile

Jatropha Curcus is a drought-resistant perennial, growing well in marginal/poor soil. It is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and lives, producing seeds for 40 years. Our Jatropha seeds have an oil content of 41% when using the best oil extraction techniques. The oil is a fuel which burns with a clear smoke-free flame. This oil can be used a Pure Plant Oil in adapted diesel engines. Alternatively, Jatropha oil can be put through a process known as transesterification to turn it into bio-diesel which is increasingly being used as a fuel by transport and energy companies. The co-product of the oil pressing process is pressed cake which is a good organic soil improver. oil.  It grows in many parts of Ghana and other parts of Africa. It is rugged in nature and can survive with minimum inputs and is easy to propagate. Jatropha grows wild in many areas of Africa and even thrives on poor soil. Depending on soil quality and rainfall, a yield of between 0.5 tons and 6 tons of seed can be achieved, when the plants approach maturity, 6 years after planting.
Family: Euphorbiaceae Synonyms: Curcas purgans Medic. Vernacular/common names: English- physic nut, purging nut.

Distribution and habitat

Botanical Features

The centre of origin is believed to be  Central America. It was introduced to Africa and Asia during the 17th century and is now cultivated in equatorial regions around the world. This drought-resistant tree is adapted to semi-arid conditions. The current distribution shows that introduction has been most successful in the drier regions of the tropics with annual rainfall of 300-1000 mm. It occurs mainly at lower altitudes (0-500 m) in areas with average annual temperatures well above 20°C but can grow at higher altitudes and tolerates slight frost. It grows on well-drained soils with good aeration and is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content. Jatropha is a small tree with smooth gray bark, which exudes a whitish colored, watery, latex when cut. Normally, it grows between three and five meters in height, but can attain a height of up to eight meters under favourable conditions.  To promote fruit formation and to ease harvesting, we prune our trees to just over 2 meters.
 

Leaves

Flowers

It has large green to pale-green leaves, alternate to sub-opposite, three-to five-lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis. The petiole length ranges between 6-23 mm. The inflorescence is formed in the leaf axil. Flowers are formed terminally, individually, with female flowers usually slightly larger and occur in the hot seasons. In conditions where continuous growth occurs, an unbalance of pistil late or staminate flower production results in a higher number of female flowers.
 

Fruits

Seeds

Fruits are produced in winter when the shrub is leafless, or it may produce several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more ovoid fruits. A three, bi-valved cocci is formed after the seeds mature and the fleshy exocarp dries. The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow, after two to four months.
 

Flowering and fruiting habit

Ecological Requirements

The trees are deciduous, shedding the leaves in the dry season. Flowering occurs during the wet season and two flowering peaks are often seen. In permanently hu-mid regions, flowering occurs throughout the year. The seeds mature about three months after flowering. Early growth is fast and with good rainfall conditions nursery plants may bear fruits after the first rainy season, direct sown plants after the second rainy season. The flowers are pollinated by insects especially honey bees. Jatropha Curcas grows almost anywhere, even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil. It can grow even in the crevices of rocks. The leaves shed during the winter months form mulch around the base of the plant. The organic matter from shed leaves enhance earth-worm activity in the soil around the root-zone of the plants, which improves the fertility of the soil. Regarding climate, Jatropha Curcas is found in the tropics and subtropics and likes heat, although it does well even in lower temperatures and can withstand a light frost. Its water requirement is extremely low and it can stand long periods of drought by shedding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss. Jatropha is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand dunes.
 

Biophysical limits

 
Altitude: 0-500 m, Mean annual temperature: 20-28 deg. C, Mean annual rainfall: 300-1000 mm or more. Soil type: Grows on well-drained soils with good aeration and is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content. On heavy soils, root formation is reduced. Jatropha is a highly adaptable species, but its strength as a crop comes from its ability to grow on very poor and dry sites       


 

 
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